International Journal of Hematology and Oncology 2024, Vol 34, Num 1 Page(s): 208-216
Determination of the Risk Factors in Individuals with Gynecological Cancer

Gül PINAR1, Lale ALGIER1, Nevin DOĞAN1, Necibe KAYA2

1Başkent Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Hemşirelik ve Sağlık Hizmetleri Bölümü, ANKARA
2Başkent Üniversitesi Ankara Hastanesi Hemşirelik Hizmetleri, ANKARA

Keywords: Endometrial cancer, Ovarian cancer, Cervix cancer, Risk factors
Gynecological cancers are the second most common cancers in females following breast cancer, and they are one of the major reason for cancer morbidity and mortality in women. Early diagnosis is crucial in these cancers in terms of women health. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk factors for commonly seen gynecological cancers: endometrial, cervix and ovarian cancers. In this retrospective study, 184 patients with endometrial, ovarian and cervix cancer diagnosed at Başkent University Ankara Hospital Obstetrics and Gynecology Department between 2006 – 2008 were evaluated. Endometrial cancer constitutes 42.4% of all cases, as ovarian cancer and cervix cancer was 33.2% and 24.5%, respectively. 53.3% of patients with cervical cancer had marriage between 15-19 years of age, and giving birth at the same age period. Postmenopausal bleeding was observed in 71.7% of endometrial cancers. 49 cases out of 61 ovarian cancers (80.3%) had no history of oral contraceptive use. We found that every individual in this study had at least one risk factor for gynecological cancer development. Among the most commonly seen risk factors were postmenopausal bleeding (71.7%), being in postmenopausal period (75.6%), abnormal bleeding (60.3%), obesity (66.7%) for endometrial cancer; being between 40-55 years of age (55.6%), postcoital bleeding (57.8%), abnormal bleeding (71.1%), cervical lesions (35.6%), several pregnancies (86.7%), vaginal secretion (66.7%), sexual activity at early age (53.3%) for cervix cancer; and being between 40-60 years of age (77.0%), obesity (54.0%), complaints about gastrointestinal system (63.9%), late menopause (34.4%), metrorrhagia (44.2%) for ovarian cancer.